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PostSubyek: THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE   Sat Aug 23, 2008 6:10 pm

[size=18][size=24]Seperti yg telah kita ketahui bersama dalam kitab suci Al-qur'an terdapat keterangan atau nash yang mengandung Ilmu pegetahuan di segala bidang lebih dikenal dengan istilah SCIENCE, ada beberapa tokoh yg memang mengkhususkan dirinya melakukan riset terhadap isi kandungan Al-qur'an diantaranya dari kalangan Islam sendiri : Harun Yahya, untuk di dalam negeri Agus Mustopa, Toto Tasmara dan pada kesempatan kali ini saya akan menyajikan karya dari non Muslim barat yg begitu tertarik dengan kandungan Alqur'an yaitu Dr. Maurice Bucaille.

[b]Dr. Maurice Bucaille

[[left]/b]It comes as no surprise to learn that Religion and Science have always been considered to be twin sisters by Islam and that today, at time when science has taken such great strides, they still continue to be associated. And furthermore certain scientific truth has death blow to religious belief, it is precisely the discoveries of science that, in objective examination of the Islamic Revelation, have highlighted the supernatural character of certain aspects of the revelation.

When all is said and done, generally speaking, scientific knowledge would seem, in spite of what people may say, to be highly conducive for reflection on the existence of God.

Once we begin to ask ourselves in an unbiased or unprejudiced way about the metaphysical lessons to be derived from some of today's knowledge, we indeed discover many reasons for thinking along these lines. When we think about the remarkable organization presiding over the birth and maintenance of life, it surely becomes clear that the likelihood of it being that result of chance gets less and less, as our knowledge and progress in this field expands.Certain concepts must appear to be increasingly unacceptable; for example, the suggestion put forward by the French winner of the Nobel prize for Medicine who tried to get people to admit that living matter was self-created as a result of fortuitous circumstances under the effect of certain outside the influences using simple chemical elements as their base. Based on this, it is claimed that living organisms came into being, leading to the remarkable complex entity called man. To me, it would seem that the scientific progress made in understanding the fantastic complexity of higher being provides strong arguments in favour of the opposite theory, i.e. the existence of an extraordinarily methodical organization presiding over the remarkable arrangement of the phenomena of life.

In many parts of the Book, the Qur'an leads, in simple term, to this kind of general reflection. But it also contains infinitely more precise data Which are directly related to fact discovered by modern science; these provide a magnetic attraction for the scientists of today.

For many centuries, man was unable to study such Qur'anic data, because he did not possess sufficient scientific means. It is only today that numerous verses of the Qur'an dealing with natural phenomena have become fully comprehensible. I should even go so far as to say that, in the 20th century, with its compartmentalization of ever increasing amount of new knowledge, it is not always easy for the average scientist to understand everything he reads in the Qur'an on such subject, without having recourse to specialized research. This means that to understand all such verses of the Qur'an one is required to have an absolutely broad-encyclopedic-knowledge, by which I mean, one which embraces very many disciplines.

I use the word 'science' to mean knowledge which has been soundly established. It does not include the theories which, for a time, help to explain a phenomenon or a series of phenomenon, only to be abandoned later on, in favour of explanations which have become more plausible thanks to scientific progress. I basically only intend to deal with comparisons between statements in the Qur'an and knowledge which is not likely to be subject to further modifications. Wherever I introduce scientific facts which are not yet 100% established, I shall, of course, make this quite clear.

There are also some very rare examples of statements in the Qur'an which have not, as yet, been confirmed by modern science: I shall refer to these by pointing out that all the evidence lead scientist to regard them as being highly probable. An example of this is the statement in the Qur'an that life is of aquatiq origin: and another is that somewhere in the Universe there are earth's similar to our own.

These scientific considerations should not, however, make us that forget that the Qur'an remains a religious book par excellence and that it cannot, of course, be expected to have a "scientific" purpose per se. Whenever man is invited to reflect upon the works of creation and the numerous natural phenomena he can observe, the obvious intention in using such examples is to stress Divine Omnipotence. The fact that, in the reflections, we can find allusions to data connected with scientific knowledge is surely another of God's gift whose value must shine out in an age where scientifically based materialistic atheism seeks to gain control, at the expense of the belief in God.

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PostSubyek: Re: THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE   Sun Aug 24, 2008 7:02 pm


Throughout my research I have constantly tried to remain entirely objective. I believe I have succeeded in approaching the study of the Qur'an with the same objectivity that a doctor would have when he opens a file on a patient. In the words, by carefully confronting all the symptoms he can find a doctor tries to arrive at a diagnosis. I must admit that it was certainly not faith in Islam that first guided my steps, but it simply was the research for the truth.This is how I see it today. It was mainly this fact which, by the time I had finished my study, had led me to see in the Qur'an a text revealed to a prophet.

We shall examine statement in the Qur'an which appear today merely to record scientific truth, about which man in former times only able to grasp the apparent meaning of. How is it possible to imagine that, there were no subsequent alterations to text, hence this obscure passages scattered throughout the next of the Qur'an were able to escape human manipulation? The slightest alteration to the text would automatically have destroyed the remarkable coherence which is characteristic of them, and prevented us from establishing their conformity with mmodern knowledge. The presence of these statements spread throughout the Qur'an looks to the impartial observer like an obvious hallmark of autencity.

The Qur'an is preaching which has made known to man in the course of a Revelation which lasted roughly twenty four years. (It spanned two periods of equal length on either side of the Hijrah). In view of this, it was natural for reflections having a scientific aspect to be scattered throughout the Book. In the case of the study such as the one we have made, we had to regroup them according to subject, collecting them surah (chapter) by surah.

How should they be classified? I could not find any indications in the Qur'an suggesting any particular classification. So I have decided to present them according to my personal order.

It would seem to me that the first subject to be dealt is the question of Creation. For this, it is possible to compare the verses referring to this topic with to the general ideas prevalent today on the formation of the universe.

I have divided the Qur'anic verses under the following general headings: Astronomy, the Earth, Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms, Man and Human Reproduction. The latter in particular is a project which, in the Qur'an, is allocated a very important place.

Furthermore, it is useful to make comparison between the Qur'anic and the Biblical narrations from the point of view of modern knowledge. This has been done in the case of the Creation, the Flood and the Exodus.

Creations as described in The Qur'an. [/i]An extremely important general idea emerges i.e its dissimilarity with the Biblical narration. This contradict the parallels which are often but wrongly drawn by Western authors to underline solely some of the resemblances between the two texts.

When talking of the Creation, as of other subjects, there is a strong tendency in the west to claim that phropet Muhammad (SAW) only copied the general outlines of the Bible. It is indeed possible to compare the six day of rest on God's sabbath, wiyh this verse:

Your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six days.
(Qur'an 7:54)

We must point straight away that modern commentators stress the interpretation of ayyam, one translation of which is 'day', as meaning 'long periods' or 'ages' rather than period of modern twenty-four hour days.

What appears to be of fundamental importance to me is that, in contrast to the narration contain in the Bible, the Qur'an does not lay down sequence for the Creation of the Earth and the Heavens. It refers both to the Heavens before the Earth and the Earth before the Heavens, when it talks of the Creation in general, as in the verses of the Surah Taha :

[God] who created the eart and the high heavens.
Qur'an 20:4)

In fact, the notion to be derived from the Qur'an is one of concomitance in the celestial and terrestrial evolutions. There are also absolutely fundamental data concerning the existence of an initial gaseous mass ( dukhan) which is unique and whose alements, although at first fused together (ratq) subsequently became separated ( fatq). This notion is expressed in the Surah Fussilat :

Then turned He to heaven
[God turned to Heaven ] when it was smoke.
(Qur'an 41:11)

And the same is expressed in the Surah Al Anbiya.

Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation) before We clove them asunder?
(Qur'an 21:30)

The separation process resulted in the formation of multiple world, a notion which crops up dozens of times in the Qur'an; forms the first verse in the Surah Al Fatiha :

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the World.
(Qur'an 1:1)

All this is in perfect agreement with modern ideas on the existence of primary nebula and the process of secondary separation of the elements that had formed the initial unique mass. This separation resulted in the formation of galaxies and then, when these divided, of stars from which the planets were to be born.

Reference is also made in the Qur'an to an intermediary Creation between the Heavens, as in the Surah Al-Furqan:

God is the one Who created the heavens, the earth and what is between them.
(Qur'an 25:59)

It would seem that this intermediary Creation may correspond to the modern discovery of bridges of matter which are present outside organized astronomical systems.

This survey certainly shows us how modern data and statements in the Qur'an agree on a large number of points. We have come a long way from the Biblical text with its successive phases that are totally unacceptable; especially the one placing the Creation of the Earth (on the 3rd day) before that our planet comes from its own star, the Sun. In such circumstances, how can we imagine that a man who drew his inspiration from the Bible could have been the author of the Qur'an, and of his own accord, have corrected the Biblical text to arrive at a general concept concerning the formation of the Universe, when such a concept was not to be formed until centuries after his death?

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PostSubyek: Re: THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE   Mon Aug 25, 2008 6:12 pm

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Astronomy. Whenever I describe the details which the Qur'an contain on certain points of astronomy to Westerners,it is unusual for someone not to reply that there is nothing special in this, considering the Arab made important discoveries in this field long before the europeans.

This is, in fact, a singularly mistaken idea resulting from an ignorance of history. In the first place, science was developed in Arabian countries at a time that was considerably after the Qur'anic Revelation had occurred. Secondly, the scientific knomledge prevalent at the high point of Islamic civilation would not have made it possible for a human being to have written statements on the Heavens comparable to those in the Qur'an.

Here again, the subject is so wide that I can only provide an outline of it.

Whereas the Bible talks of the Sun and Moon as two luminaries differing in size, the Qur'an distinguishes between them by the use of different epithets: light (nu'r) for the Moon, torch (siraj ) for the Sun. The first is an inert body which reflect light, the second is a celestial formation in a state of permanent combustion, and a source of light and heat.

The word 'star' ( najm) is accompanied by another word qualifying it which indicates that it burns and consumes itself as it pierces through the sadows of the night: it is the word taqib.

In the Qur'an the word kawkab definitely seems to mean the planets which are celestial formations that reflect and do not produce light, like the Sun.

Today it is known how the celestial organization is balance by the position of stars in a defind orbit and the interplay of gravitational forces related to their mass and speed of movement, each with its own motion. But isn't this what the Qur'an describes, in terms which have only become comprehensible in our own day, when it mentions the foundation of this balance in the surah Al Anbiya':

[God is the one ] and He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float each [each one is traveling] [u]in an orbit [with its own motion].
(Qur'an 21:33)

The Arabic word which expresses this movement is the verb sabaha (yasbahun in the text); it carries with it the idea of a motion which comes from any moving body, be it the movement of one's legs as one runs on the ground, or the action of swimming in water. In the case of celestial body, one is forced totranslate it in the original sense, that is 'to travel with one's own motion'.

The description of the sequence of day and night would, in itself, be rather common place were it not for the fact that, in the Qur'an it is expressed in terms which today are highly significant. This is because it uses the verb kawwara in the Surah Al Zumar (39:5) to describe the way the night 'wind' or 'coil' itself about the day and the day about the night, just as, in the original meaning of the verb, a turban is wound around the head. This is totally valid comparison; yet at the time the Qur'an was revealed, the astronomical data necessary to draw it were unknown.

The evolution of the Heavens and the notion of a settled place for the Sun are also described. They are in agreement with highly detailed modern ideas. The Qur'an also seems to have alluded to the expansion of the Universe.

There is also the conquest of space. This has been undertaken thanks to remarkable technological progress which resulted in man's journey to the Moon. But this surely springs to mind when we read Surah Al Rahman:

O company [
assembly] of jinn and men, if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate (them)! ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) Sanction [Power].
(Qur'an 55:33)

This power comes from the Almighthy , and the subject of the whole surah is an invitation to recognize God's Beneficence to man.

The Earth. Let us examine, for example, this verse in the Surah Al Zumar:

Hast thou not seen how Allah hath sent down water from the sky hath caused it to penetrate the earth as water-springs, [
led it through sources into the ground] and afterward thereby produceth crops of divers hue [then He caused sown fields of different colours to grow].
(Qur'an 39:21)

Such notions seem quite natural to us today, but we should not forget that they were not prevalent long ago. it was not until the sixteenth century, with Bernard Palissy, that we gained the first coherent description of the water cycle. Prior to this, people talked about the theory whereby the waters of the oceans, under the effect of wind, were thrust towards the interior of the continents. They then to be returned to the oceans via the great abyss, which, since Plato's time, has been called the Tartarus. In the seventieth century, a great thinker such as Descartes believed in it, and even in the ninetieth century there was still talk of Aristoteles's theory, according to which water was condensed in cool mountain caverns and formed underground lakes that fed springs. Today, we know that it is the infiltration of rainwater that is responsible for this. If one compares the fact of modern hydrology with the data to be found in numerous verses of the Qur'an on this subject, one cannot fail to notice the remarkable degree of agreement between the two.

In geology, a fact of recently acquired knowledge is the phenomenon of folding, which was to form the mountain ranges. The same is true of the Earth's crust, which is like a solid shell on which we can live, while the deeper layers are hot and fluid, and thus inhospitable to any form of life. It is also known that the stability of the mountains is linked to the phenomenon of folding, for it was the folds that were to provide foundations for the relief that constituted the mountains.

Let us now compare modern ideas with one verse among many in the Qur'an that deals with the subject. It is taken from Surah Al Naba:

Have We not made the earth an expanse and the high hills bulwarks?
(Qur'an 78:6-7)

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PostSubyek: Re: THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE   Thu Aug 28, 2008 4:17 am

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The stake (awtad), which are driven into the ground like those used to anchor a tent, are the deep foundations of geological folds. Here, as in the case of other topics, the objective observer cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction with modern knowledge. But more than anything else, I was struck, at first, by statements in the Qur'an dealing with living things, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, especially with regard to reproduction.

I must one again stress the fact that it is only since modern times that scientific progress has made the content of many such verses more comprehensible to us. There are also other verses which are more easily understandable, but which conceal a biological meaning that is highly significant. This is the case of the Surah Al Anbiya', a part of which has already been quoted:

Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation )before We clove them asunder ? We made from water every living thing. Will they then not believe?
(Qur'an 21:30)

This is an affirmation of the modern idea that the origin of life is aquatic.

Progress in botany at the time of Prophet Muhammad (saw) was in no country advanced enough for it to be established as a rule that plants have both male and female parts. Nevertheless, we may read the following in the Surah Taha :

[God is the One Who] and has sent down water from the sky. With it have we produce divers pairs of plants each separate from the other.
(Qur'an 20:53)

Today, we know that fruit comes from plants that have sexual characteristics (even when it comes from unfertilized flowers, like bananas). In the Surah Al Ra'd we read:

All of fruits [God] He placed therein (on the earth) two spouses [of a pair].
(Qur'an 13:3)

Reflections on the reproduction in the animals kingdom were linked to those on human reproduction. We shall examine them presently.

In the field of physiology, there is one verse which is extremely significant because one thousand years before the discovery of the circulation of the blood, and roughly thirteen centuries before science discovered about what happened in the intestine-to ensure that, the organs were nourished by the process of digestive absorption, in this verse we find a description about the source of the constituents of milk, in conformity with modern notions. In order to understand the meaning of this verse, we have to know that chemical reactions occur in the intestine and that, from there, substances extracted from food pas into the bloodstream via a complex system, sometimes by way of the liver, depending on their chemical nature. The blood transports them to all the organs of the body, among which are the milk-producing mammary glands.

Without going into too much detail, let us just say that basically there is the arrival of certain substances from the contest of the intestines into the vessels of the intestinal wall itself and the transportation of these substances by the bloodstream. This concept must be fully appreciated, if we are to understand this verse in the Qur'an:

And lo! In the cattle there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies [bodies], from between the refuse and the blood, pure milk (palatable to the drinkers). [Coming from a conjunction between the contents of the intestines and the blood, a milk pure and pleasant for those who drink it].
(Qur'an 16:66)

In the Qur'an the subject of human reproduction leads to a multitude of statements which constitute a challenge to the embryologist seeking the human explanation to them. It was only after birth of the basic sciences which were to contribute to our knowledge of biology, and especially after the invention of the microscope, that man was able to understand such statements. It was impossible for a man living in the early seventh century to have expressed such ideas. There is nothing to indicate that at that time men in the Middle East and Arabia knew anything more about this subject then men living in Eourope or anywhere else.

Today, there are many Muslims with a trough knowledge of the Qur'an and natural sciences who have clearly recognized the comparisons to be made between the verses of the Qur'an dealing with reproduction and human knowledge. I shall always remember the comment of an eighteen year old Muslim brought up in Saudi Arabia with reference to the question of reproduction as describe in the Qur'an; he said, 'But this book provides us with all the essential information on the subject. When I was at school they used the Qur'an to explain to me how children were born; your books on sex-education are a bit late on the scane!'

It is on this point in particular, that the comparison between the beliefs current at the time of the Qur'an, that were full of superstitions and myths, and the contents of the Qur'an to the mistaken ideas that were prevalent at the time.

Let us now isolate, from all these verses, precise ideas concerning the complexity of the fertilizing liquid and the fact that an infinitely small quantity is required to ensure fertilization, its 'quintessence' - if I may so translate the Arabic word 'sulala'.

The implantation of the egg in the female genital organ is perfectly described in several verses by the word ' Alaq', which is also the title of the surah in which it appears:

God created man from a clot [fashioned man from something which clings].
(Qur'an 96:2)

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PostSubyek: Re: THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE   Sat Aug 30, 2008 10:56 pm

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I do not think there is any reasonable translation of the word 'Alaq'other than to use its original sense.

The evolution of the embryo inside the maternal uterus is only briefly describes, but the description is accurate, because the simple words referring to it correspond exactly to fundamental stages in its growth. This is what we read in a verse from Surah Al Mu'minun:

Then fashioned We the drop a clot, then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then fashioned We the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation.
(Qur'an 23:14)

The term 'crewed flesh' (mudga) corresponds exactly to the appearance of the embryo at a certain stage in its develovment.

It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that they are then covered with muscle. This is the meaning of the term 'intact flesh' (lahm).

The embryo passes through a stage where some parts are in proportion and other out of proportion with what is later to become the individual. May be this is the meaning of a verse in the Surah Al Hajj which reads as follows:

We have created you from dust, then from a drop of seed, then from a clot, then from a little lump of flesh shapely and shapeless.
(Qur'an 22:5)

Next, we have a reference to the appearence of the senses and viscerae in the Surah Al Sajda:

[God] appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts.
(Qur'an 32:29)

Nothing here contradicts today's data and, furthermore, none of the mistaken idea of the early 7th century has crept into the Qur'an.

We now discuss the issue of the confrontation with modern knowledge, of passages in the Qur'an that are also referred to the Bible.

We have already briefly touched on this when talking of the creation. I also stressed the perfect agreement between modern knowledge and verses in the Qur'an, and pointed out that the Biblical narration contained statements that were scientifically unacceptable. This is hardly surprising when we know that the great narration of the Creation contained in the Bible was the work of priests living in the sixth century BC, hence the term 'Sacerdotal'[/i] narration. This seems mainly to have been conceived as the theme of a preaching designed to exhort people to observe the sabbath. The narration was constructed with a definite end a view, and as Father de Vaux (a Former head of the Biblical School of Jerusalem) has noted, this end was essentially legalist in character.

The Bible also contains a much shorter and older narration of the Creation, the so-called 'Yahvist' version, which approaches the subject from a completely different angle.

The are both taken from Genesis, the first book of the Pentateuch or Taurah: Moses is supposed to have been its author, but the text we have today,has, as we know, undergone many changes.

The Sacerdotal narration of Genesis is famous for its whimsical genealogies that go back to Adam and which nobody takes very seriously. Nevertheless, such Gospel [/i] authors as Matthew and Luke have reproduced them, more or less verbatim, in their genealogies of Jesus. Matthew goes back as far as Abraham, and Luke to Adam. All these writings are scientifically unacceptable, because they set a figure on the age of the world and the time man appeared on Earth, whish is most definitely out of keeping with what has today been established with certainty. The Qur'an on the other hand, is completely free of data of this kind.

Earlier on, we alsoo noted how perfectly the Qur'an agrees with general, modern ideas on the formation of the Universe, whereas the Biblical narration stands in contradiction to them; the allegory of the primordial waters is hardly tenable, nor is the creation of the light on the first day, before the creation of the stars which produce this light: the existence of an evening and a morning before the creation of the Earth on the third day before that of the Sun on the fourth; the appearance of the beasts of the Earth on the sixth day after the appearance of the birds of the air on the fifth day, although the former came first; all these statements are the result of beliefs prevalent at the time this text was written and do not have any other meaning.

As for the genealogies contained in the Bible, which form the basis of the jewish calendar and assert that today the world is 5738 years old, these are hardly admissible either. Our solar system may well be 4.5 billion years old, and the appearance of man on the Earth, as we know him today, may be estimated in tens of thousand years, if not more.

It is absolutely essential, therefore, to note that the Qur'an does not contain any such indications as to date and that these are specific to the Biblical text.

There is a second, highly significant, subject of comparison between the Bible and the Qur'an: this is the Flood. In actual fact, the Biblical narration is a fusion of two descriptions in which events are related differently. The Bible speaks of a universal flood and places it roughly 300 years before Abraham. According to what we know of Abraham, this would imply a universal cataclysm around the twenty-first or twenty-second century BC. This would be untenable, in view of historical data.

How can we accept the idea that, in the twenty-first or twenty-second century BC, all civilization was wiped off the face of the earth by a universal cataclysm, when we know that this period corresponds, for example, to the one preceding the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, at roughly the date of the first intermediary period before the eleventh dynasty?

None of the preceding statements is acceptable according to modern knowledge. From this point of view, we can measure the enormous gap separating the Bible from the Qur'an. In contrast to the Bible the narration contained in the Qur'an deals with a cataclysm that is limited to Noah's people. They were punished for their sins, as were other ungodly people. The Qur'an does not locate the cataclysm in time. There are absolutely no historical or arceological objections to the narration in the Qur'an.

A third point of comparison, which is extremely significant, is the story of Moses, and especially the Exodus from Egypt of the Hebrews enslaved to the Pharaoh. Here I can only give a highly shortened account of the study of this subject. I have noted the points where the Biblical and Qur'anic narration agree and disagree, and, for some details, I have found points where the two texts complement each other in a very useful way. Among the many hypotheses concerning the position occupied by the Exodus in the history of the pharaohs, I have concluded that the most likely is the theory which makes Merneptah, Ramses II's successor, the pharaoh of the Exodus.The conflict in the data contained in the Scriptures with archeological evidence speaks strongly in favour of hypothesis. I am pleased to be able to say that the Biblical narration contributes weighty evidence leading us to situate Moses in the history of the pharaoh: Moses was born during the reign of Ramses II. Biblical data are therefore of considerable historical value in the story of Moses.

The medical study of the mummy of Merneptah has yielded further useful information on the possible causes of this pharaoh's death.

The fact that we today posses the mummy of this pharaoh, which, to be exact, was discovered in 1898, is of paramount importance. The Bible records that it was engulfed in the sea, but does not give any details as to what subsequently became of the body. The Qur'an in the SurahYunus, notes that the body of the pharaoh, who was to be damned, would be save from the waters:

This day shall We save thee in thy body so that thou mayest be a sign for those who come after thee!
(Qur'an 10:93)

A medical examination of this mummy, has, moreover, shown that the body could not have stayed in the water for long, because it does not show signs of deterioration due to prolonged submersion. Here again, the comparison of the narration in the Qur'an with the data provided by modern knowledge does not give rise to the slightest objection from a scientific point of view.

The Old Testament constitutes a collection of literary works produced in the course of roughly nine centuries and which has undergone many alterations. The part played by man in the actual composition of the texts of the Bible is quite considerable.

The Qur'anic Revelation has a history which is radically different. From the moment it was first communicated to man, it was learn by heart and written down during Prophet Muhammad's (saw) own lifetime. Thanks to this, the Qur'an does not pose any problem of authenticity.

A totally objective examination of it, in the light of modern knowledge, leads us to recognize the agreement between the two, as has been noted repeatedly. It makes us deem it quite unthinkable for a man of Prophet Muhammad's (saw) time to have been the author of such statement, on account of the state of knowledge in his day. Such considerations are part of what gives the Qur'anic Revelation its unique place, and forces the impartial scientist to admit his inability to provide an explanation which calls solely upon materialistic reasoning.

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